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Gender inequalities in health and wellbeing across the first two decades of life: an analysis of 40 low-income and middle-income countries in the Asia-Pacific region

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Health Morbidity and mortality 1.1.01 YLD rate due to all causes by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.02 Mortality rate due to all causes by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.03 YLDs due to CMNN diseases by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year; GBD cause A) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.04 Mortality due to CMNN diseases by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year; GBD cause A) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.05 YLDs due to STIs by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year); subset of CMNN (GBD cause A.1.2) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.06 Mortality due to STIs by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year); subset of CMNN (GBD cause A.1.2) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.07 YLDs due to HIV by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year); subset of CMNN (GBD cause A.1.1) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.08 Mortality due to HIV by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year); subset of CMNN (GBD cause A.1.1) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.09 YLDs due to nutritional disorders by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year); subset of CMNN (GBD cause A.7) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.10 Mortality due to nutritional disorders by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year); subset of CMNN (GBD cause A.7) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.11 YLDs due to NCDs by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year; GBD cause B) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.12 Mortality due to NCDs by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year; GBD cause B) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.13 YLDs due to alcohol and other drugs by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year); subset of NCDs (GBD cause B.7) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.14 Mortality due to alcohol and other drugs by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year); subset of NCDs (GBD cause B.7) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.15 YLDs due to mental disorders by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year); subset of NCDs (GBD cause B.6) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.16 Mortality due to mental disorders by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year); subset of NCDs (GBD cause B.6) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.17 YLDs due to injury by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year; GBD cause C) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.18 Mortality due to injury by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year; GBD cause C) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.19 YLDs due to transport injury by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year); subset of injury (GBD cause C.1) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.20 Mortality due to transport injury by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year); subset of injury (GBD cause C.1) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.21 YLDs due to interpersonal violence by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year); subset of injury (GBD cause C.3.2) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.22 Mortality due to interpersonal violence by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year); subset of injury (GBD cause C.3.2) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.23 YLDs due to self-harm by 5-year age group and sex (YLDs per 100 000 per population per year); subset of injury (GBD cause C.3.1) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% 1.1.24 Mortality due to self-harm by 5-year age group and sex (deaths per 100 000 per population per year); subset of injury (GBD cause C.3.1) GBD 2017 85% 100·00% Child health 1.2.01 Infant mortality rate (probability of dying between birth and exactly 1 year of age, expressed per 1000 livebirths), by sex UN IGME 2016 97·5% 100·00% 1.2.02 Number of deaths of children, under 5 years of age, per 1000 livebirths, by sex UN IGME 2016 97·5% 100·00% 1.2.03 Proportion of children aged 12–23 months who have received all basic vaccinations (BCG, MCV1, DTP3, Polio3; %), by sex DHS, UNICEF 2011–16 60% 71·77% 1.2.04 Proportion of children, aged 12–23 months, who have received BCG (%), by sex DHS, UNICEF 2011–16 52·5% 71·45% 1.2.05 Proportion of children, aged 12–23 months, who have received MCV1 (%), by sex DHS, UNICEF 2011–16 52·5% 71·45% 1.2.06 Proportion of children under 5 years of age with fever in the past 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider (%), by sex UNICEF 2010–16 35% 25·97% Food security and nutrition 1.3.01 Proportion of children under 5 years of age with stunting (height for age less than −2 SD below the median; %), by sex UNICEF 2010–17 37·5% 19·84% 1.3.02 Prevalence of thinness among 5–19 year olds (BMI less than −2 SD below the median of reference population; %), by sex (mapped as 15–19 years) WHO 2016 97·5% 100·00% 1.3.03 Prevalence of overweight among 5–19 year olds (BMI higher than 1 SD above the median; %), by sex (mapped as 15–19 years) WHO 2016 97·5% 100·00% 1.3.04 Prevalence of anaemia (based on WHO age-specific and sex-specific haemoglobin thresholds; %), by 5-year age group and sex GBD 2016 85% 100·00% Health behaviours 1.4.01 Proportion of 15–19 year olds who report an episode of binge drinking (>48 g females, >60 g males) in the past 12 months (%), by sex GBD 2016 85% 100·00% 1.4.02 Prevalence of daily tobacco smoking among 10–19 year olds (%), by sex GBD 2016 85% 100·00% Psychosocial wellbeing 1.5.01 Proportion of 13–17 year olds who report being so worried about something that they could not sleep at night most of the time or always in the past 12 months (%), by sex WHO 2010–16 65% 30·25% Sexual and reproductive health and rights 1.6.01 Proportion of 15–19 year olds with comprehensive knowledge of HIV (%) UNICEF 2010–16 75% 72·78% 1.6.02 Proportion of currently married or partnered females, aged 15–19 years, who can say no to their husband if they do not want to have sexual intercourse (%) DHS 2016–17 15% 11·52% 1.6.03 Proportion of married or partnered females, aged 15–19 years, who are current users of family planning, who decide to use family planning themselves or jointly with their husband (%) DHS 2016–17 7·5% 11·15% 1.6.04 Proportion of married or partnered females, aged 15–19 years, who make decisions about their own health care, themselves or jointly with their husband (%) DHS 2012–17 42·5% 66·78% 1.6.05 Demand for contraceptives satisfied with a modern method in females aged 15–24 years (%) GBD 2016 85% 100·00% 1.6.07 Number of livebirths per 1000 females aged 15–19 years UNICEF 2014 100% 100·00% 1.6.08 Mortality rate due to maternal disorders among 15–19 year olds (deaths per 100 000) GBD 2016 85% 100·00% Education and employment School participation 2.1.01 Pre-primary education: number of children enrolled in pre-primary school (regardless of age) as a proportion of all children of pre-primary school age (%), by sex UNICEF 2016 87·5% 94·77% 2.1.02 Adjusted net attendance ratio: primary school (number of children attending primary or secondary school who are of official primary school age, divided by number of children of primary school age; %), by sex UNICEF 2010–16 60% 54·39% 2.1.03 Completion rate: primary school (household survey data; %), by sex UNESCO 2010–16 40% 60·38% 2.1.04 Proportion not in school: primary school (number of children of primary school age who are not enrolled in primary or secondary school, as a proportion of primary school-aged children; %), by sex UNICEF 2010–16 7·5% 7·00% 2.1.05 Adjusted net attendance ratio: lower secondary school (number of children attending lower secondary or tertiary school who are of official lower secondary school age, divided by number of children of lower secondary school age; %), by sex UNICEF 2010–16 42·5% 28·79% 2.1.06 Completion rate: lower secondary school (household survey data; %), by sex UNESCO 2010–16 40% 60·38% 2.1.07 Proportion not in school: lower secondary school (number of children of lower secondary school age who are not enrolled in secondary school, as a proportion of lower secondary school-aged children; %), by sex UNICEF 2010–13 7·5% 7·07% 2.1.08 Adjusted net attendance ratio: upper secondary school (number of children attending upper secondary or tertiary school who are of official upper secondary school age, divided by number of children of upper secondary school age; %), by sex UNICEF 2010–16 42·5% 28·79% 2.1.09 Completion rate: upper secondary school (household survey data; %), by sex UNESCO 2010–16 40% 60·38% 2.1.10 Proportion not in school: upper secondary (using household survey data; %), by sex UNESCO 2012–16 62·5% 60·46% Learning outcomes 2.2.01 Proportion of 15–24 year olds who are literate (%), by sex UNICEF 2010–16 72·5% 99·76% Access to information 2.3.01 Proportion of adolescents, aged 15–19 years, who own a mobile phone (%), by sex DHS, ITU 2014–16 22·5% 22·53% 2.3.02 Proportion of adolescents, aged 15–19 years, who used the internet in the past 12 months (%), by sex DHS, MICS 2010–17 25% 13·94% 2.3.03 Proportion of adolescents, aged 15–19 years, with access to information media (newspaper, TV, or radio) at least once a week (%), by sex DHS 2012–17 42·5% 73·56% Transition to employment 2.4.01 Proportion of youth aged 15–24 years not in education, employment, or training (%), by sex ILO 2010 to 2016 47·5% 69·46% 2.4.02 Proportion of youth, aged 15–24 years, currently unemployed as a percentage of the total number of employed and unemployed people (the labour force; %), by sex ILO, NMDI 2010 to 2017 72·5% 71·49% Protection Sex preference 3.1.01 Sex ratio at birth (number of male births per one female birth) UNDP 2015 82·5% 100·00% 3.1.02 Expected-to-estimated female infant mortality rate ratio (ratio less than 1 suggests excess female infant mortality) UN IGME 2016 97·5% 100·00% 3.1.03 Expected-to-estimated mortality rate for females under 5 years of age UN IGME 2016 97·5% 100·00% Legal, financial, and social protection 3.2.01 Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose birth has been registered with a civil authority (%), by sex UNICEF 2010–16 52·5% 60·48% 3.2.02 Proportion of children, aged 0–59 months, left alone or in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than 1 h at least once in the past week (%), by sex UNICEF 2010–16 30% 12·58% 3.2.03 Proportion of children aged 0–17 years who live with neither biological parent (%), by sex (mapped as 5–9 years) UNICEF 2010–16 52·5% 60·48% 3.2.04 Child marriage: proportion of 20–24 year olds who were married before 15 years of age (%), by sex DHS, UNICEF 2010–16 57·5% 71·14% 3.2.05 Child marriage: proportion of 20–24 year olds who were married by 18 years of age (%), by sex DHS, UNICEF 2010–16 60% 76·46% 3.2.06 Proportion of youth, aged 15–24 years, who have their own bank account (%), by sex DHS 2016–17 10% 7·83% 3.2.07 Proportion of married or partnered females, aged 15–19 years, in paid work, who make decisions about how earnings are used, themselves or jointly with their husband (%) DHS 2012–17 22·5% 66·18% 3.2.08 Proportion of married or partnered females, aged 15–19 years, who make decisions about major household purchases, themselves or jointly with their husband (%) DHS 2012–17 42·5% 66·78% Violence and harmful practices 3.3.01 Proportion of children, aged 1–14 years, who experience violent discipline (psychological aggression or physical punishment) from a caregiver (%), by sex (mapped to 5–9 years) UNICEF 2016 35% 14·54% 3.3.02 Proportion of 13–17 year olds who report experiencing bullying in the past 30 days (%), by sex GSHS 2010–16 65% 25·17% 3.3.03 Proportion of ever-partnered females, aged 15–19 years, who have experienced intimate partner violence in the past 12 months, physical or sexual (%) DHS 2012–16 27·5% 54·33% 3.3.04 Proportion of females, aged 20–24 years, who experienced forced sex by 18 years of age (%) DHS 2013–17 25% 54·15% 3.3.05 Proportion of adolescents, aged 15–19 years, who think that a husband or partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife or partner under certain circumstances, by sex UNICEF 2010–16 57·5% 71·30% Exploitation 3.4.01 Average number of hours that children, aged 5–14 years, spend doing household chores per week, by sex (mapped to 10–14 years) UNICEF 2010–16 22·5% 5·93% 3.4.02 Proportion of children, aged 5–17 years, engaged in child labour (%), by sex (mapped to 10–14 years) UNICEF 2010–16 37·5% 16·37% 3.4.03 Proportion of children, aged 5–17 years, engaged in child labour who are in hazardous work (%), by sex (mapped to 10–14 years) ILO 2011–16 17·5% 12·48% 3.4.04 Number of detected trafficked children under 18 years of age, by sex (mapped against 15–19 years) UNODC 2014 15% 13·37% Safe environment Air pollution 4.1.01 DALYs due to household air pollution (DALYS per 100 000), by 5-year age group and sex GBD 2016 85% 100·00% Water, sanitation, and hygiene 4.2.01 DALYs due to unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene (DALYs per 100 000), by 5-year age group and sex GBD 2016 85% 100·00% 4.2.02 Proportion of households where a person under 15 years of age is usually responsible for water collection (%), by sex (mapped against 10–14 years) DHS, MICS 2010–12 15% 4·41% Mobility 4.3.01 Proportion of married or partnered females, aged 15–19 years, who make decisions about visiting family or friends, themselves or jointly with their husband (%) DHS 2012–16 40% 27·70% 4.3.02 Number of international migrants younger than 20 years of age (thousands), by sex (mapped against 15–19 years) UN DESA 2017 100% 100·00% Conflict and disaster 4.4.01 Number of refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced, stateless, or other people of concern younger than 18 years of age (thousands), by sex (mapped against 15–19 years) UNHCR 2010–16 62·5% 97·00%

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(20)30354-5/fulltext

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