Carlos Julio Aponte, MD, board-certified rheumatologist and American College of Rheumatology member.
David Borenstein, MD, clinical professor of medicine, George Washington University Medical Center; partner, Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, Washington, DC; executive editor, spinecommunity.com.
UpToDate: “Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in adults,” “Pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis.”
National Health Service (U.K.): “Ankylosing spondylitis.”
Spondylitis Association of America: “Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.”
Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center: “Ankylosing Spondylitis.”
Current Rheumatology Reports: “Gender Differences in Axial Spondyloarthritis: Women Are Not So Lucky.”
Stanford Healthcare: “How is Ankylosing Spondylitis diagnosed?”